Unprecedented successes regarding cancer immunotherapy have been achieved, in which therapeutic agents are used to targeting immune cells rather than cancer cells.
Immunotherapy is an umbrella term used to describe therapies that directly target the immune system to combat disease. For many years, immunotherapy has mainly been used to diminish immune responses in diseases traditionally classified as immunemediated, such as autoimmunity and allergy, and to promote tolerance to transplanted tissues and organs.
By targeting inhibitory checkpoint molecules, with resultant
reinvigoration of antitumor immunity, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have opened a new chapter in cancer treatment .