In their recent review, Sherwin et al. discuss, among many other issues, the relationship of the gut microbiome–brain axis with autism under a section subtitled “Microbiota-based therapies for the treatment of autism: hype or hope?”
Background:Systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by persistent inflammation, is a complex autoimmune disorder with no known cure. Immunosuppressants used in treatment put patients at a higher risk of infections. New knowledge of disease modulators, such as symbiotic bacteria, can enable fine-tuning of parts of the immune system, rather than suppressing it altogether.
Increased permeability of the gut wall lumen, leading to exposure of the immune system to microorganisms. This may lead to an immune response that, via haematological spread, results in a local inflammatory process within the joints. Note: gut microbiome composition can be affected by: age, drug use, comorbidity, malnutrition, diet, infections and stress.
The links between microorganisms/viruses and autoimmunity are complex and multidirectional. A huge number of studies demonstrated the triggering impact of microbes and viruses as the major environmental factors on the autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. However, growing evidences suggest that infectious agents can also play a protective role or even abrogate these processes. This protective crosstalk between microbes/viruses and us might represent a mutual beneficial equilibrium
relationship between two cohabiting ecosystems.