Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease caused by genetic and environmental factors. Infection is proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis. Several viral and bacterial infections, including parvovirus B19, Chikungunya, hepatitis C, Epstein-Barr virus and Porphyromonas gingivalis, have been raised to be associated with RA
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme aims to prevent cervical cancer. Globally around 13.1/100,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year.2 Typically, vaccination is offered to girls aged 9–13 years before sexual debut and naı¨ve to HPV infection. Box 1 gives an overview of licensing and indications in Europe and the US.
Birth rates in the United States have recently fallen. Data suggest that the HPV vaccine is associated with a lowered probability of having been pregnant. Several case studies link the HPV shot to POF suggesting one mechanism through which the vac- cine affected fertility might involve ovarian damage. Other mechanisms through which the HPV shot might influence the probability of con- ceiving also exist.
Severe somatoform and dysautonomic syndromes after HPV vaccination: case series and review of literature
Vaccine-induced autoimmunity: the role of molecular mimicry and immune crossreaction
Human papillomavirus（HPV）ワクチンの接種後にSLE を発症した一例
A critical review of randomized trials and post-marketing case series
The aim of this study was to clarify the temporal relationship between human papillomavirus vaccination and the appearance of post-vaccination symptoms.